History of telephones in India
The history of telephones in India dates back to the 19th century when the first telegraph lines were laid across the country. The first telephone exchange was set up in Kolkata (formerly known as Calcutta) in 1882, just two years after the first telephone exchange in the world was established in Connecticut, USA. Since then, the Indian telecommunications industry has come a long way, and today, it is one of the fastest-growing and most dynamic industries in the world.
Early Days of Telephones in India
In the early days, the telegraph and telephone services were managed by the Postal and Telegraph Department, which later became the Department of Telecommunications (DoT). The first telegraph line was laid between Kolkata and Diamond Harbour in 1851, and within a few years, the service had spread to other cities, including Mumbai, Chennai, and Delhi. The first telegraph office was established in Mumbai in 1855.
The first telephones in India were installed in the Governor General's residence in Kolkata in 1881. The following year, the first telephone exchange was established in the city, which had only 93 subscribers. By 1883, the service had spread to Mumbai, Chennai, and other major cities.
Growth of Telecommunications in India
The growth of telecommunications in India was slow during the early years, and it was only after independence in 1947 that the government took significant steps to improve the infrastructure. In 1951, the government set up the Indian Telephone Industries (ITI) to manufacture telephones and other telecommunications equipment in the country.
The Indian telecommunications industry saw significant growth in the 1980s and 1990s, with the introduction of private players and the adoption of new technologies. The government-owned DoT was restructured, and two new organizations were formed: Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) for providing telecom services, and Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) for providing services in Delhi and Mumbai.
The introduction of mobile phones in India in the 1990s revolutionized the industry, and it has been growing at a rapid pace ever since. The liberalization of the industry in the early 2000s led to the entry of several new players, including Reliance Communications, Bharti Airtel, and Vodafone, among others.
Current State of Telecommunications in India
Today, India is the second-largest telecommunications market in the world, with over a billion mobile phone subscribers. The industry has seen significant growth in recent years, with the adoption of 4G and 5G technologies, and the increasing popularity of smartphones. Vodafone and Idea have merged to form a new entity Vodofone Idea. A relatively new player Reliance Jio has made a huge entry and currently has maximum market share.
The government's Digital India initiative has also played a significant role in the growth of the industry, with a focus on providing high-speed internet connectivity to all parts of the country. The initiative aims to transform India into a digitally empowered society and a knowledge economy.
The history of telephones in India is a fascinating one, spanning over a century and a half. From the first telegraph lines to the modern-day 5G networks, the Indian telecommunications industry has come a long way and has played a significant role in the country's development. With the increasing adoption of new technologies and the government's initiatives, the industry is poised for even greater growth in the coming years.